Creativity & Idea Generation

Table of content:

1. Introduction
2. What is creativity ?
2.1 Definitions of Creativity
2.2 Individual qualities of creative persons
3. Methods for idea generation
3.1. Stefan Moritz's SD Generation
3.2 Mind map
3.3 Delphi method
3.4 Relevance Trees
4. The creative and innovating process
4.1 ICEDIP Process
4.2 Service Design tasks
4.3 Creative Process with a scientific point of view
5. The environment supporting creativity
5.1 Are there places conductive to creativity ?
5.2 What are the environments that enhance creativity ?
5.3 Is their a moment, an age that favorises creativity ?
6. How can creativity and idea generation be useful ?
7. Europpaa has tested three ideation methods for you !
7.1 Brainstorming
7.2 Feature tree
7.3 Brainwriting
8. Conclusion
9. References
9.1 Books
9.2 Websites

1. Introduction

Hello everybody and welcome to our wiki. In this wiki the main topic is creativity and idea generation. Creativity is about finding new ideas or concepts that can bring up original solutions. Idea generation facilitates the research for solutions of an issue or problem. These two concepts as well as coaching, dialogue, motivation and team work are needed to improve the effectiveness of the company and to ensure its survival. This is why this topic is important for companies as well as individuals. As described in the following paragraphs, the knowledge is also very important for companies to be successful and the question we may ask ourselves is if we agree with what Einstein said "imagination is better than knowledge".

The aim of this wiki is to bring you some knowledge about the concept of creativity and to see at what point creativity can be useful. We will go throught tools and methods for developing creativity, also go by the creativity process and its impacts. Then you will be able to see that creativity can depend on where you live, the school in where you study or where you spend your time and even the importance of some countries.

2. What is creativity?

As it’s mentioned by, “Human beings are creative animals.” It means that creativity is one of the inherent abilities. Creativity can be shown in different ways and we can see pieces of the creativity on every corner.

2.1 Definitions of Creativity

Having the ability or power to create. (, 2010)

Creativity is a mental process involving the discovery of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the existing ideas or concepts, fueled by the process of either conscious or unconscious insight.

Generates and/or recognises how best practice and imaginative ideas can be applied to different situations. (, 2010)

The capacity to produce something which is both unique and useful. (ITS Tutorial School, 2010)

Ability to produce something new through imaginative skill, whether a new solution to a problem, a new method or device, or a new artistic object or form. The term generally refers to a richness of ideas and originality of thinking. Psychological studies of highly creative people have shown that many have a strong interest in apparent disorder, contradiction, and imbalance, which seem to be perceived as challenges. Such individuals may possess an exceptionally deep, broad, and flexible awareness of themselves. Studies also show that intelligence has little correlation with creativity; thus, a highly intelligent person may not be very creative. (Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, 2008)

2.2 Individual qualities of creative persons

Creative individuals tend to be independent and nonconformist in their thoughts and actions. Important is also master knowledge in their field of action. Like for example Steve Jobs, Coco Chanel or the person who is considered as the most creative human ever – Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci was a notable exception in the human history, because he was versatile. He surely brought a scale of new inventions to the different fields (visual arts, mechanics, and engineering).

The unconventionality of thought that is sometimes found in creative persons may be in part a resistance to acculturation. In fact, independence is critical to the creative process. Another trait common among creative people is that of introversion. While this does not imply a lack of social skills, it suggests that creative people tend to be reflective and inner-directed; they look to their own intuition rather than depending upon interaction with others to inform their attitudes and responses. (Britannica, 2008)

Another ‘special’ quality of a creative person could be considered his approach in problem seeking and solving. Robert Sternberg and Todd Lubart likened in their book ‘Defying the Crowd (1995)’ that the creative individual identifies a unique need—perhaps a problem or opportunity that no one else recognizes. And this ability makes them so exceptional. As best examples could be mentioned Bill Gates and Steve Jobs in information technology field; Guus Hiddink, José Mourinho and Sir Alex Ferguson in the football coaching and Karl Benz or Thomas Edison in science field.

High intelligence is common in creative persons, yet while they can meet the problems of life as rationally as anyone else can, their intellect does not rule at the expense of intuition or other seemingly nonrational influences. Most studies of the relationship of creativity to intelligence have also shown that extreme general intelligence does not necessarily kindle creativity. Findings such as these contributed to the “threshold” model of intelligence and creativity, which claims that, above a certain level, intelligence has little correlation with creativity—i.e., a highly intelligent person may not be as highly creative. It may be that intelligence sets the limits on the amount of information a person can learn and retain, while creative thinking provides the flexibility necessary for the original production of ideas.(Britannica, 2008)

3. Methods for idea generation

The aim of this part is to show and describe some methods for idea generation.

3.1. Stefan Moritz's SD Generation

In Stefan Moritz’s book “Practical Access to Service Design” we can learn more about Service Design Tasks. There are six tasks in order to Design a Service and one of these, who interests us in this topic is SD Generation (further more information can be find later in this wiki). SD Generation is about doing, creating and coming up with idea. Ideas need to be developed into strong concept. That is why to develop ideas, good tools and methods are useful.

Below are some methods which are best in developing and bringing up ideas:
  • Bodystorming: This idea is sometimes used for creating technique or design. People in one group try to act different ideas about one topic and possible solutions.
  • Brainstorming: It is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem. In this case group should give as much associations as can. It generates new ideas.
  • Brain writing, - shaping, -racing, -station: It is based on the concept of Brainstorming. In a similar way to brainstorming, it is not the quality of ideas that matters but the quantity.
  • Experience sketching: In this method group focus for experience for client and analyze these. It helps to create something new based on client expectations.
  • Feature tree: A feature tree is a way to look at planned product features hierarchically, so you can quickly understand the relationships among product features you have specified
  • (Group) sketching: It is good way to take many different ideas about one topic. People should have distinct opinion and that give you some overview idea.
  • Idea interview: After an idea has been developed it can be discussed with other experts. It helps to understanding all idea.
  • Open space technology: Is a simple way to run productive meetings. Everyone works only on the topic they are interesting and they feel pagination about it.
  • Parallel design: Two or more groups are working in the same problem in the same time. They have brainstorming, mind map. The results can be compeer and build upon.
  • Randomizer: Randomizer combines different elements or ideas. It is helpful to create concepts and solutions.
  • Unfocus group: Interviewing with different kind of group people. Important is that this group have diverse focus point about problem. This helps to come up with innovation idea.

In the seventh part of this wiki, you can find some of these methods that our group has used following Stefan Moritz's SD Methods.

3.2 Mind map

MindMapping is popular for generating ideas. The elements of the mind map are arranged intuitively taking care of the importance of the concepts. They are classified into branches, areas and groups with the basic goal.
A mind map is a web of thoughts, ideas, names, words and images that all come from one central idea or word in a diagram form.
Tony Buzan, in his book, suggests how to prepare and how to use a good Mind Map:
  • Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors.
  • Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your Mind Map.
  • Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters.
  • Each word/image is best alone and sitting on its own line.
  • The lines should be connected, starting from the central image. The central lines are thicker, organic and flowing, becoming thinner as they radiate out from the centre.
  • Make the lines the same length as the word/image they support.
  • Use multiple colors throughout the Mind Map, for visual stimulation and also to encode or group.
  • Develop your own personal style of Mind Mapping.
  • Use emphasis and show associations in your Mind Map.
  • Keep the Mind Map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or outlines to embrace your branches. (The Mind Map Book)

Below is an example of a possible mind map taken at the end of the process.

example of MindMap link:

Tony Buzan's suggestion seem good about how to use a Mind Map. These are advices which are necessary to improve your Mind Map.

3.3 Delphi method

The Delphi Method is a process for formulating expectations about future trends.
This method is based on experiences of experts of different kind of materia. It is similar to questionnaire, which helps group members to read each other’s answers.
First step is making some kind of questionnaire with different circles. Everything is anonymous, and compeer with others. The result is the feedback taken from the interviewee and from the analyzes of the answers.
The name "Delphi" derives from the Oracle of Delphi.

3.4 Relevance Trees

Relevance trees are similar to concept maps in a way that they graphically display a branch network of related items. But while a concept maps links ideas, relevance trees are often used in technology assessment to show the impacts of a given decision. Relevance trees are also known as impact networks and futures wheels.

example of Relevance Trees

These are some tools used to develop creativity and idea generation. There are many others as the Six Thinking Hats of Bono or The brainwritting 6-3-5 Method for example.

4. The creative and innovating processthecreativeprocess.png

The aim of this part is to describe how creativity can be implemented in a project, what process should be follow to reach it.

4.1 ICEDIP Process

Geoffrey Petty in his book “How to be better at creativity” has described a six-phase process in order to create, to be creative.
The six phases are the following:

  • Inspiration. This phase is like a brainstorming. The aim here is to create a large amount of ideas, no matter if they are good are not. Even if 99% of the ideas are not workable, the last 1% makes you being creative.
  • Clarification. The aim of this phase is to orientate your work by clarifying its purposes. This phase is quite useful when the project gets stuck.
  • Evaluation. As the name shows, the aim here is to be self-critical. During your work you will need to review what you have so far done in order to maybe improve it.
  • Distillation. The aim of this phase is to filter your ideas. You need to decide on which you will work on and forget the others.
  • Incubation. Here, you will let your brain, your unconscious work on your ideas. The aim here is to let things going on by doing something else for few days. It will therefore be useful when you will come back on your work because you will have had a distance with it and be more able to evaluate it.
  • Perspiration The aim of this phase is to focus on your remaining ideas by working on them, to bring your ideas to fruition. It is realising the final work.

In order to use this process in the most efficient way, you should look at the different phases in different orders, for sometime a really short period, you should also do the correct phase at the appropriate time (it means to change phase if you are stuck). (Petty, 1997)

4.2 Service Design tasks

Service Design tasks have been created by Stefan Moritz in order to improve a service by making it more innovative, creative. It consists a process with six tasks which help to the previous aim. As the following picture shows, the process starts by understanding the environment of the service (SD Understanding), then to give an orientation of the project (SD Thinking), to next developing ideas (SD Generating) which you select in the next task (SD Filtering) to finally explain (SD explaining) and implement those (SD realising). Stefan Moritz has categorised several tools and methods for performing each task. The team has used some; please have a look here to see those.


The SD tasks are really useful for developing and improving a service. It helps to build a strong process for innovating and therefore for being creative.

Nevertheless, the six tasks are presented here in a logical order, the mostly used, but can be done in a different order as the following picture shows. For example, when you generate ideas, you can realise the orientation of the project was not well defined and need a re-creation to improve it and therefore the whole process. (Moritz, 2005)


4.3 Creative process with a scientist point of view

The following video shows a process for stimulating the generation of ideas. It shows a more concrete and scientific way of being creative.
This video has also 6 steps:

1. Sleep. Sleeping boost our creativity and problem solving. Solutions or ideas can be found when we wake up.
2. Do physical exercises. It also allows creative thinking by boosting the brain.
3. Dream during the day. Allow your mind to wonder a few times every day. (It is NOT a waste of time).
4. Keep learning. Studying something else than we are used to help to thinking of new ways.
5. Challenge yourself. It “fires” the brain. Fear and frustration trigger innovative thinking.
6. Keep a notebook. Having a notebook or PDA with us allows writing down ideas whenever they come to our mind.

On the one hand, what Stefan Moritz and Geoffrey Petty show is that in order to create something new, generating ideas is not enough. Moreover, there ideas are link on some points: you can do the phases in a different order and there is a concrete need of thinking of your work. On the other hand, science has proved that for generating ideas and creativity, there is still some "tips" to do to increase its creativity.
In the following part, you will see about how creativity can be influenced in someone by different exterior factors, such as school, work and family.

5. The environment supporting creativity

The environment in which people live in can help them developing their creativity or not. In this fifth part, we are going to try and find out if there are places, environments and moments that are best for individual’s creativity. The aim of this part is to analyse the importance of the environment in creativity. All along this part, we will also look for things that should be avoided to let creativity exist.

5.1 Are there places conductive to creativity ?

In this first part, we are going to see if an individual’s creativity depends on where he lives, goes to school and more generally spends time. The main question is: Are there regions, countries or places that support creativity more than others ?

5.1.1 The Nordic countries

The Nordic countries (Norway, Sweden and Finland) are well known for their education systems. These systems put creativity and new technologies in the center of their programs. Instead of differentiating knowledge and creativity, they incorporate the concept of creativity in all their courses. Their goal is to develop pupils’ and students’ creativity. (Chassot, 2009)
So, we can say that the Nordic countries have established an educational system that differs from the other countries. They support the pupils’ creativity by letting them widen up their imagination in a specific system.

5.1.2 Finland

Although all the Nordic countries focus on creativity, Finland has further developped this point. Indeed, Finland has had in 2000, 2003 and 2006, the first place of the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). This is a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old pupils' on their academic performance. Three competences are evaluated: reading, mathematics and sciences. Even if these competences do not seem related to creativity, they still are because they have been thought in a creative way. Finland’s education is based on creativity and for that reason, the education system of the country is very often analysed by the other countries in order to discover how it works.

Moreover Finland manages to be one of the most innovative country in the world with one of the highest rates of patents. This creativity may surprise when we know that Finnish people are rather reserved and shy but it can be understood when looking at their school education. (French Newspaper Le Monde)

5.1.3 Laurea

If we ask Finnish people what are the factors of their success, they will not be able to answer. Indeed, they have only seen this kind of education system. But when you come from another country, it is clear and easy to see the academic differences. Indeed, when arriving in Laurea (a college of Applied Sciences), the first thing supervisors and Finnish students talked about is “LBD”. Learning By Developing is an operational model established by Laurea that helps to:
- produce new competences in the field of service innovations
- carry out a professional orientated education, a regional development and R&D activities .

In other words, LBD is a new way to learn that consists in helping students to build experiences, to handle new situations and to act in a purposeful way. Students in some courses should try to find by themselves the theorical part of the lesson. In other courses they are asked to improve services that already exist in a professionnal way. These are examples of ways to develop student’s creativity. (Laurea 2008)

5.2 What are the things around us that enhance creativity ?

5.2.1 Familiy environment

The familiy in which an individual is going to grow can be a factor of developement of creativity. Indeed, in some families children are pushed to play an instrument, to paint, to danse... These factors may push them to become creative persons and artists. This is even more true since it is during childhood that people develop their senses and imagination.

Nevertheless, creativity should not be confused with art subjects as music, painting and dancing for example. Indeed, parents often think that, because their children took painting lessons, they are going to be creative adults in the futur. Creativity does not only exist in art. It can be found everywhere, especially in science. This can seem to be ironic but it is quite logical. How can we find a new concept, how can we understand something unknown, if we do not have imagination? Imagination and creativity are essential in science because they help to go towards the unknown and they help to think differently. (Sadish, 2009)

So parents should not only register their children to art courses but also help them discover their environment. That is to say that they should help them explore their surroundings, give free rein to their imagination, project themselves into the futur...

5.2.2 Sport environment

It seems that for many people, sport can be a support to creativity. In fact, while practising an activity, they manage to generate many ideas and find solutions to their problems. This might be possible thanks to the oxygenation of the brain. Once the neurons are well-oxygenated, they begin to be stimulated and lead to new ideas or new perspectives. Another reason might be that people who practise sport feel physically strong and free. These feelings give them confidence that can generate unusual ideas. (Du rêve au Concret, 2009)

5.2.3 School environment

On the one hand, some people say that it is not the school’s role to develop imagination and creativity. The role of school should be to provide the basic knowledge to students so that they can use their knowledge later to serve creativity.

On the other hand, some people say that creativity should be developped at school even more than knowledge. They go in the same direction as Einstein (1879-1955) who said “Imagination is more important than knowledge”. This vision could be true if we consider that knowledge is only tought by someone else, whereas imagination is something that we create by ourselves. So imagination would be more important than knowledge since imagination is something with a personal added value. (Sadish, 2009)

But in these two different opinions school is seen as an entity. But we know that there are different kinds of schools: private schools and public schools for example. And if we look at different types of school systems, we can notice that some leave more space to the creativity and imagination than others. Thus, Freinet, Montessori or Decroly are based, among other, on methods that focus on trial and error, experience and experimentation. School can also support creativity by creating working groups. These groups allow creativity to flourish and allow the collective intelligence to come out. (Chassot, 2009)

5.2.4 Work environment

Fostering creativity is a manner to ensure the survival of a business so companies try to support creativity as much as they can. In fact, today our world is a global economy, and to survive, companies have to try and domesticate their employees’ creativity to develop new innovations.

According to Teresa Amabile, in order to foster creativity within their company, companies should try to put together individuals who:
- have a high level of knowledge and expertise on a theme
- have creative thinking skills
- are motivated by intellectual challenges

The diagram below is a representative manner to show how these three kind of individual can be creative together. Each one of them needs the two others and their skills to foster their creativity. Teams should be thought so that creativity and new ideas come up. (Lebelle, 2010)


Moreover since creativity seem to be a key for a company to survive today, companies should take care to encourage creativiy thanks to factors as:
  • Organizational culture that promotes creativity
  • Encouragement from supervisors
  • Support from work groups
  • Sufficient resources (money, time ect)
  • Challenging work that suits to the employee
  • Freedom to decide how to carry out your personnal work.

On the other hand the obstacles to creativity are:
  • Organizational barriers, such as internal politics, rejection of new ideas, negative competition within the organization and preference of non taking risk.
  • Negative pressures, including unrealistic productivity and time constraints. (Jacobson, 2007)

Finally, in this part, we would like to show an example of a company that has understood the importance of creativity. Here are some pictures of Google’s facilities in Zurich in Swizerland. We can see that colors are put forward. They have also created relaxing spaces so that the staff can "forget" that they are at work and let their imagination work. The slide also shows that the staff is still considered as big children that have a lot of creativity to develop.


5.3 Is their a moment, an age that favorises creativity ?

For children up to 10 and 11 years old, spontaneity and imagination are present. There is for the young child, a clear relationship between playing in all its forms and the creative process. But there is often a confusion between reality and fantasy.

The teenager period is a difficult period also for creativity. It is the age when everything seems to be bloqued.

The adults have experienced a significant number of experiments. They are able to move between the real world and the imaginary world. But it is more difficult for them to stay in the imaginary world since they have everyday preocupations.

So in this fifth part, we have seen that many things can help the creativity of an individual to be developped. The human creativity stays a very important element in working life, and companies are understanding it. They must do their best to develop their staff's creativity to gain added value compared to the competition.

6. How can creativity and idea generation be useful?

After you have learnt about creativity and idea generation, it is generally time to think about how they are useful. Creativity has to happen in order to innovate, innovation has to happen in order to develop new products and services and get financial benefit to an organization. Creativity is the force that developes something new and ground-breaking. It is an essential part in an organizational and personal perspective. It is a way to express yourself, develop new methods and make the work easier and more profitable (Lampikoski, 2004. 35-36.)

Creativity and idea generation may be useful in an organization:
  • When a certain problem can be solved in many different ways. Which way will we choose? For example what will we call the new product.
  • When a certain problems solving demands many different answers. For example where can we find funding for this project.
  • When the old methods do not solve the problem anymore. For example how to use an electronic recipe in a pharmacy.
  • When you want to solve an old problem using a new method.
  • When we want something truly new and inspiring (Lampikoski, 2004. 36-37.)

Creativity and idea generation may be useful in studying:
  • When applying into a certain school
  • When choosing course subjects
  • When doing your final project
  • When answering in exam questions (Lampikoski, 2004. 37.)

You might say that creativity and idea generation happens all the time. While working, studying, going to a hobby and just sitting at home. Creativity keeps us from numbing ourselves in same old patterns. If you can not use your creativity in work, you might feel bored and that your work is a daily routine. If your work does not offer you enough situations where you can use your creativity, you can fill your spare time with creative things, such as writing, painting or playing an instrument. It is important to use your own creativity and let it flow.

Next we are going to show you what kind of creative methods we tried during this wiki.

7. Europpa has tested three ideation methods for you !

Creativity and idea generation are topics that our team tried to apply in general. After learning the theorical part of this subject, it was really important and nice to put it into practise. That is why we tried some methods in order to:
  • do a table of content as clear and comprehensive as possible
  • do a creative wiki

7.1 Brainstorming

The first tool we used was brainstorming. As the following pictures show, we used a whiteboard to let our imagination flow concerning the creativity and idea generation theme. We wrote everything that came to our minds. None of the ideas we had were erased. The purpose of this tool is to write absolutely everything that is connected for us to the main topic.


At the beginning, the white board was completely white with the exception of the main topic.

Then ideas came up, and we wrote them on the board. We did not think about where to write them or what color because the only thing we had to think about was finding words that were connected to the topic.

After that the white board was full of words and expressions.

The last thing we did after that was to write all our ideas in a clear way on the computer, so that we would be able to always keep on track our ideas.

7.2 Feature tree

Then after using the brainstorming method, we used the feature tree. It seemed logical for us to use this tool after the brainstorming method. Indeed, we just had to classify all our ideas into topics and sub-topics.


The first step was to link all our ideas of the brainstorming board.

It gave us something quite illegible.

So we created a tree which had for trunk the word "creativity". The branches were the words we had found linked to each other. We had a lot of fun doing this tree and the outcome was much more clear than the brainstorming.

The last step, as for the previous tool, was to write all our ideas in a clear way on the computer, so that we would be able to always keep track of our ideas.

7.3 Brainwriting

Then the team experienced the last tool: the brain-writing method. Here, the idea was not to express ourselves about creativity but to think about how to implement creativity in our wiki. This is how we came to the idea of showing our work by several pictures.


First, we have cut some pieces of paper of the same size. We wrote our key question : "How to do a creative wiki?". And we tried to find ideas. We came up with ideas as changing the layout, putting pictures of the team working and creating a new part related to us. When we had these we tried to develop even more our ideas by writing two ways of doing each of them.

That is how we came up with six creative ideas for our wiki ! We chose to leave away the idea of a new layout because we want our wikis to be uniform. We chose to show our work and our experience of creativity in this wiki.

The last step, as for the two previous tools, was to write all our ideas in a clear way on the computer, so that we would be able to always keep a trace of our ideas.

8. Conclusion

Currently companies want to be more efficient and survive in the market. Indeed, globalization leaded to the increasement of the trade and information flow, so being competitive is necessary. To achieve that goal, creativity and idea generation are essential. It is possible to enhance creativity as there are different ways that directly affect people as the family, sport, school or work.

What makes a company survive for a long time is its ability to change and innovate. That is why being competitive means maintaining continuity and ensuring that the company is constantly creating new sources of income. This requires commitment to create new business and new products.

Competitive companies are always looking forward and not backward, continually changing the rules of competition instead of following the rules already established. Defining new ways of doing business, are pioneers in the concept of new products, building new basic skills, creating new markets, establishing new standards and challenging their own assumptions.
Usually the concept of creativity and the concept of intelligence are matched, as if the presence of one of them means the presence of the other oner. Nevertheless, time and researches have shown that this statement is not completely true. Creativity does not depend only on the estate, but rather the result of various factors related to it. Obviously intelligence is the engine of the mind, it depends on the mental speed reactions, but that does not mean that intelligence is synonymous with thinking skills. A clever person can be a poor thinker, if they have not acquired the skills necessary to think clearly. And a less intelligent person may have acquired thinking skills leading to enhance their creativity.

So don't be afraid to develop your creativity whatever background and knowledge you have !!

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9. References

9.1 Books

  • Buzan, Tony2000, The Mind Map Book, Penguin Books
  • Lampikoski, K., Lampikoski, T. 2004. Kehitä ideasi innovaatioksi. Vantaa: Dark oy
  • Moritz, S. 2005. Service Design: Practical access to an evolving field. London.
  • Petty, G. 1997. How to be Better at Creativity. London: Kogan Page.
  • Sternberg R., Lubart T. 1995. Defying the Crowd.

9.2 Websites

  • Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Accessed 19/11/10
  • Chassot, I. 2009. A l’école de la créativité. Accessed 16/11/10
  • Jacobson, J. 2010. Creativity in the work place. Accessed 16/11/10
  • Laurea. 2008. Learning By Developing. Accessed 17/11/10
  • Le Monde. French Newspaper. La Finlande, pays où l’innovation est reine. Accessed 16/11/10
  • Lebelle, B. 2010. Favoriser la créativité pour assurer la survie de l’entreprise. Accessed 18/11/10
  • No name. 2009. Du rêve au concret. Accessed 17/11/10
  • Petty, G. 1997. How to be Better at Creativity. Accessed: 17.11.2010
  • Presentation PP Delphi Methods
  • Sadish. 2009. Créativité et imagination : un apprentissage dès l’école ?. Accessed 16/11/10
  • The Free Dictionary. Accessed 19/11/10
  • UCAS at the heart of connecting people to higher education. Accessed 19/11/10
  • UTS Tutorial School. Accessed 19/11/10

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