Table of Contents :

1/ Introduction
2/ Basic definitions
3/ How can coaching make someone reach his objectives ?
3.1 The objective has to be clearly defined
3.2 The objective has to be well thought
3.3 The coaching must be tailored to the objective
4/ What are the tools that can be used for coaching ?
4.1 Asking questions
4.2 Giving feedback
4.3 Encouraging reflection
4.4 Confronting fears
4.5 Projectingdrawings
5/ Individual or Team coaching ?
5.1 Individual coaching
5.2 Team coaching
6/ What is the coaching process ?
6.1 Stage one: Relationship
6.2 Stage two: Openings
6.3 Stage three: Assessment
6.4 Stage four: Enrollment
6.5 Stage five: Coaching itself
6.6 Flaherty's coaching process conclusion
6.7 Coach Meg & Wellcoaches coaching process
7/ What are the results of coaching ?
7.1 What are the results if you follow the process?
7.2 How to ensure the results?
8/ Conclusion
9/ References9.1 Books9.2 Websites

1/ Introduction

Hello everyone and welcome to our wiki. In this wiki as the main topic we are going to talk about coaching. Coaching is, as well as team work, dialogue and motivation, a good manner to improve the effectiveness of a company.

Coaching is helping and escorting a person at a key moment in his professional or personal life. It allows you to adapt yourself into a new situation by changing your behavior, attitude, and also by finding new resources. Coaching is useful to increase its analysis skills, define objectives… Coaching is for people who are in transition or experiencing temporary difficulties to achieve their goals. (Raschetti 2003)

To begin with we will ‎explore the meaning of coaching in more detail, before going on to look at how coaching can help someone to reach his objectives and then the tools which can be used in coaching. After differencing individual coaching from team coaching, you will go through the coaching process (how a coaching tutorial is implemented) and finish by the coaching results.

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2/ Basic definitions

- Coaching: To coach someone in to a certain goal, business or life coaching
- Mentoring: An experienced employee helps a new employee to find their place in the organization
- Work guidance: To observe the feelings and thoughts brought up by own work ( Hirvihuhta, 2006. 16-17.)

Business coaching is all about improving work skills. You can coach employees to achieve better results. The coach is the person who is coaching employees. The coach can use certain methods, attitudes and ways to help the employee achieve those goals which are set to be achieved by the employee or the organization. The best case scenario is to achieve these goals and even go beyond the goals (Hirvihuhta, 2006. 6.)

The person who is being coached can be anyone from the organization. Maybe a manager with a challenging job who wants to improve their own working ways and ways to become a better manager. Or maybe a team which members are working together towards certain goals (Hirvihuhta, 2006. 6-7.)

The coach is usually a person outside the organization who is offering services to the organization. The managers of the organization or the human resources department can ask for a coach for the employees or themselves or the person who wants to be coached can ask for a coach. The organization can also use their own employees as coachs. This is called a coaching-system. In the system all employees are trained to be each others coachs. Although the coach is often someone outside the organization the coach can also be a manager in the organization. If the coach is the manager, it is important that the manager feels to be responsible of the development of the employees (Hirvihuhta, 2006. 7.)

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3/ How can coaching make someone reach his objectives ?


The principal reason that pushes an individual to ask help from a coach is that they want to reach their objectives. The coach is there to help them reach their objectives by helping him to clarify them, by making sure that they are well thought and by tailoring his coaching to the objective of the coachee. On the picture below, we could say that the red piece of puzzle, that the individual is carrying, could be the coach. He is going to be very important for the individual to reach his objectives.

3.1 The objective has to be clearly defined

The starting point of a coaching process is to identify the objectives and the ressources that the individual posseses. That is why it is very important that during the first coaching session the coach looks for the reasons that brang the individual to be coached. There are many types of objectives and these objectives can be very different between two people but they must be defined very precisely each time. Thus, in order to define the objective, the coach has to ask some opened questions as:
- What is your problem?
- What do you want to change?
- What end do you want to move towards to?
- Who do you want to look like?
- Who is your model ?
- In your opinion, what do those who succeed do better than you do ? (Raschetti 2003)

3.2 The objective has to be well thought

Once the objective is understood clearly by both the coach and the coachee, they have to make sure that the objective takes into account some criterias. This is essential so that the coaching process is successful. That is to say that the objective has to be:
- mesurable. They have to decide when it is going to be reached.
- in a context. They have to decide in which environment the objective is going to be reached. With who ? Where ?
- feasible. They have to agree on an objective that can be reached with the skills and the knowledge of the individual. (Raschetti 2003)

3.3 The coaching must be tailored to the objective

As we have said, there are many different types of objectives since people go through different types of issues. The coaching must be adapted to the objective so that this one can be reached. There are three main types of objectives:
- Objectives that are personal to each people that is to say that the objectives are related to their everyday life.
- Objectives that are profesional that is to say that the objectives are related to the individual’s working life.
- And objectives that can be set up for teams.
We are going to see for each of these, what is the role of the coach.

3.3.1 Personal objectives

The coachee may want to:
  • Face a difficulty
The aim for the coach is that the coachee regains his potential and his energy. When a difficulty or a problem comes up, people are often stressed and loose their self-confidence. The coach is there to help the individual find some ideas to face this problem and set up a strategy.
  • Make a decision
The aim for the coach is to help the coachee make a decision or a choice when he seems to be lost. This choice has to be made considering his motivations, skills and personality.
  • Improve couple relationship
The aim for the coach is to help the couple dialogue in a good way and have a peaceful relationship. The coach tries to make each partner talk about the couple issues and find out what are the problems and where do they come from.
  • Achieve sport results
The aim for the coach is to give advice to the sportsman so that he is motivated to reach his goal. The coach can highlight the sportsman’s strenghts, help him see him in the future. (Lorio 2010)

3.3.2 Professional objectives

The coachee may want to:
  • Find his career path
In this case, the coach can be there to help people who are at the beginning of their career. They can be students or graduates. He helps them to find in which sector and what job would fit them best considering their background, their skills and their personality.
  • Gain power in his job
The coach will help him develop his knowledge, his communication skills and his self-confidence. He will also hightlight his strengths in order to help him progress. He will also help him to become more responsible and autonomous.
  • Direct his career or his conversion
In this case, the coach is useful for people who already have a job but would like to find a new one that would really fit their deep motivations. The coachee will be accompanied in the development and main stages of his career and will help him progress.
  • Integrate a new team
The coach will help the coachee to actively adapt himself to a new professional context and to a different cultural environment. He will also have to help him communicate better and more authentically. (Faubert)

3.3.3 Team objectives

The coachees may want to:
  • Improve their team relations
That is to say that the team will have to improve the functioning of its relationship. The team will also have to resolve some eventual conflicts and learn how to establish a real cooperation. This coaching must be specific to each team in order to be a useful coaching.
  • Improve their results
This coaching will be based on learning how to work effectively. The coach will have to help each person of the team find his place and develop his skills. (Lorio 2010)

To conclude this part, we can say that there are many different objectives that can be solved with the help of a coach. The coach seems to be a very important person that can help people improve themselves and pass through their problems. Nevertheless, in order to do that, the coach needs some special skills and tools, that we are going to explain in the next part.

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4/ What are the tools that can be used for coaching ?

toolbox.jpgTools help the coach to escort the coachee. Nevertheless, tools can not replace the coach, even more on a human relation side. The coach's experience and his comprehension skills are his main tools in order to study the environment of the coachee and to identify its needs and barriers.

4.1 Asking questions

Questioning is one of the major tool of an experimented coach, mixed with listening of the answers which are given back. It allows the coachee to be oriented to solutions which can be find by himself. If the questions are awkward at first sight, they become very useful when answering.

Examples of questions:
  • How do you explain that this problem appeared?
  • What makes what you describe an issue to you?
  • Does someone else could find it is as important as for you?
  • What does make you saying that?What would happen if you act differently?
  • What advice would you give to a person in the same situation as your are?

4.2 Giving feedback

The feedback consists of considering the failure not as something real but as learning. Therefore, we have fought against our failures and learn from them instead of being discouraged. An experimented coach will be able to help the coachee to consider his failures in a different point of view and to take advantages of them.

4.3 Encouraging reflection

It is the simple concept of the coachee’s environment. When the coach works with the coachee, he will have the same feelings and impressions as another person could have with the coachee. It allows the coach to understand what behaviours the coachee could implement to his environment.

4.4 Confronting fears

Life in a society makes us acting on a flattering way. But sometimes, some situations or persons can make us reacting aggressively or sadness. An experimented coach will want to know what afraid us and what could annoy us so bad that we could lose self control. Therefore, he will observe our mood, and will try to find out what has triggered it. Then, the coach will help the coachee to get rid of its deep fears. Then the coachee will be able to have health relations with its environment.

4.5 Projecting drawings

This method of comprehension of the coachee consists of making him drawing his situation or picking it in a large selection. Then the coachee comment the draw and talks with the coach. It may make the coachee realising his situation on a different point of view.
(Raschetti 2003)

These are some examples of tools which can be used. Of course there are a lot more tools that can help coaches to do their job. These one give an idea of the direction which has to be taken when coaching someone. In the following part, we will see what is the difference between individual and team on a coaching point of view.

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5/ Individual or Team coaching ?

In this part, we are going to show the differences between individual and team coaching.
"The goal of coaching is the goal of good management: to make the most of an organization's valuable resources."
(Harvard Business Review)
Coaching can be a very great support in work-related learning and making it more effective.

5.1 Individual coaching

Coaching will develop helping for your work and make it the most important thing of your life. As a partnership it will enable you to go further, faster, than you could go alone.
Coaching helps you to be more developed and a more available person. Being coached, you can develop your good sides and find information about yourself, for example, what do you want to do in your life, how to learn, how to improve your lifestyle. The job of the coach is to give the coachee every language, tools, answers and skills so that he can complete what he most wants, as quickly as possible.

The benefits of individual coaching are to:
  • Provide a partnership for personal development
  • Provide a platform for personal and spiritual evolution
  • Help to have a stabilizated life and then work well
  • Teach you to have more sustainable energy
  • Improve your relationships
  • Help you to develop language skills
  • Complement other improvement processes
  • Facilitate the building of personal vision and mission (Benefits of Individual coaching)

5.2 Team coaching

Team coaching is important in a team, because it moves your work on a good way. If members of team do not work well, they need coaching to improve their work.
One of the way how to improve teamwork is to choose a leader, who could manage for this group. Team coaching helps people understanding how to work with other members. This is really important, because after that team can focus on their job.
If you want to understand team coaching first you should realized in what kind of group you are working. People have different styles of working, different temperaments and ideas. You should know this.

5.2.1 How to improve your team coaching

Below, are some tips and advices to improve a team coaching.

  • The team should know what they want to achieve and on which way.
  • The coach should help the team to follow their idea.
  • Every member has to know what is his responsibility, and team coaching should help in this.
  • The team leader should give a feedback about team work and should give ideas that would help them to improve their work.
  • The team leader should motivate his team to an effective team work.
  • Dialogue is the best way to avoid mistakes.

5.2.2 Executive Team Coaching

The role of the executive team coach is very different.
Where the team coach is also the team leader, it can be very difficult to rise above these interconnections. The coach is responsible for the rest of his team. If the team has a problem his responsibility is to answer about it. Coaching should have a style to recognize a problem in a small case and next as fast as it is possible, delete this in work place.


This table shows how difficult is be coach, and how difficult is working with team.
Thanks to this picture you can realised what is the most important in team coaching, and what you shouldn't do.

There are sections into two topics:
Coaching Executive Teams - getting to the heart of the purpose of the team, its modus operandi and how success is measured.
Facilitation - often used at board level to work through a specific issue or challenge, where an independent facilitator may be necessary. (Executive Coaching Services)

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6/ What is the coaching process ?

Coaching process is basically a way to apply coaching in the practice. There are few stages in each process depending on coaching theory. Usually the stages are building relationship, understanding values and goals, assessment and coaching itself.

There is one complex process made by James Flaherty and published in his book Coaching: Evoking Excellence in Others. And the stages of it are Relationship, Openings, Assessment, Enrollment and Coaching itself.

6.1 Stage one: Relationship

The type of relationship necessary for coaching is one of openness, communication, appreciation, fairness, and shared commitment.

For achieving shared commitment, what is goal in this stage, it is really important to set up freedom of expression. It means that the coachee should talk openly and at the same time coach receives client’s thoughts without any argument or defense. Each member of the conversation is listening and considering what the other person is saying. The final component in constructing freedom of expression is maintaining absolute confidentiality. By skillfully combining these three elements - openness, listening, and confidentiality - you will ensure freedom of expression in your coaching relationship. (J.Flaherty, 1998)

6.2 Stage two: Openings

Coaching starts when either the client or the coach encounters an opening for coaching.

Most people don't seek out and are not ready candidates for coaching until their everyday's life is interrupted. People generally are not open to being coached because they have a habitual way of accomplishing something. There are some events which are making client more ready for receiving coaching:
  • Performance reviews
  • Breakdowns
  • The need for a new skill when someone takes on a new position
  • Business needs such as requirements for higher quality and lower coast

The essential point is that the opening exists with the client, not simply with the coach. You must have an opening for coaching before you start in order for the program to be successful. (J.Flaherty, 1998)

6.3 Stage Three: Assessment

First, the level of the coachee's competency is assessed. Second, the coach assesses the structure of interpretation of the coachee. Finally, the coach takes time to study the array of relationships, projects, and practices that make up the life of the coachee. The best way to of doing an assessment when an external coach is first speaking with the coachee and the people who work around him. The second is to observe the ccoachee in action by shadowing. (J.Flaherty, 1998)

There are three assessment models mentioned by J.Flaherty.

6.3.1 Model One: Five Elements Model

This model contains five areas of observation:
  • Immediate concerns (what is in coachee’s mind in the moment)
  • Commitments (coachee’s dependency on some object or person)
  • Future possibilities (coachee’s potential)
  • Personal and cultural history has influenced subsequent ways we respond
  • Mood (the semi-permanent emotional tone within which a coachee exists)

6.3.2 Model Two: Domains of Competence

The premise of this model is that in order to accomplish anything of substance, we must be minimally competent in each of three domains – Self-management, Relationships and ‘Facts and Events’. There are some qualities and skills needed for each part. (J.Flaherty, 1998)

  • Qualities: vision, passion, integrity, trust, curiosity, daring
  • Skills: self-observation, self-knowledge, self-management, self-remembering and self-consistency

  • Qualities: empathy, reliability, openness, optimism, faith
  • Skills: listening, speaking, setting standards, learning, innovating

Facts and Events:
  • Qualities: rigor, objectivity, persistence, creativity, focus
  • Skills: analyzing, predicting, simplifying, building models, organize/prioritize/release

6.3.3 Model Three: Components of Satisfaction and Effectiveness

This model is a listing of the competencies necessary to be both satisfied and effective.

  • Making distinctions
  • Predicting future consequences of actions

  • Bringing people or events close to us or distancing ourselves from people or events

  • Having what we say will happen actually happen

  • Generating and maintaining the array of meanings, possibilities, actions, and relationships that arise once a purpose is declared

  • Akin to compassion and kindness
  • Our experience of connectedness to the rest of humanity/life-forms on earth

(J.Flaherty, 1998)

6.4 Stage Four: Enrollment

In enrollment, both the client and the coach make explicit what they are committed to accomplishing in the coaching program, potential outcomes and possible hindrances. The enrollment conversation requires that the coach listen very intently to both what the client is saying and what the client is keeping silent about. The outcomes must be stated in sufficient clarity that both parties will be able to recognize them as occurring or not and also be able to discern what progress has been made toward them. (J.Flaherty, 1998)

6.5 Stage Five: Coaching itself

This stage is about determining the scope of the coaching project. (J.Flaherty, 1998)

6.6 Flaherty’s coaching process conclusion

So in summary coachee and coach have to be openned for each other. Coachee has to be ready to receive coach’s help and coach has to observe coachee’s environment and habits. After every requirement is accomplished the coaching process could be successful.

6.7 Coach Meg & Wellcoaches coaching process

Here is short video showing a different approach and view of the coaching process. We think that it is interesting because each step is explained simply by two characters, that don't even speak.

According to this video, there are five stages in the coaching process and they lead the coachee's to success.
  • Stage 1: Meet
  • Stage 2: Vision
  • Stage 3: The plan
  • Stage 4: Journey
  • Stage 5: Success

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7/ What are the results of coaching ?

Everyone has dreams and desires but...why are these goals sometimes achieved and sometimes not? How can someone always manage to achieve his goals? In order to answer these questions it is necessary to put into practise coaching, but there are four tips that make effective coaching (Wheeler, 2008):
  1. Be clear about the results you are looking for each other. You need to be clear about what you are trying to improve in interest of the organization and in interest of the individual.
  2. Ask before you say. The tendency is to give too much advices, and advices are good but not as a coaching. Is important to know what the other person wants before offering wisdom.
  3. Offer himself as a resource whenever possible. Ask the people who is training what they need from you in order to achieve the desired goal.
  4. Practice self-development. Behavior is the best demonstration of commitment to continuous improvement and the example is the transparency.

7.1 What are the results if you follow the process?

Coaching is a process to achieve results and is oriented to the future. The interaction with the coach comes into a special synergy that drives a person to actions and allows you to approach the desired results. Change and personal development are as important as the final result. It is necessary to accept the mistakes as learning opportunities.Results.jpg
Through the coaching process you can obtain the following results:
  • Identify strengths, weaknesses and areas for improvement
  • Clarify personal vision and mission
  • Change old habits for more effective strategies
  • Broad of perspective and curiosity
  • Increase the level of proactivity
  • Improve the quality of relationships
  • Increase job performance
(Mproactive magazine, 2007)

7.2 How to ensure the results?

To achieve the desired results, it is necessary to ensure the following:
  • Fix a line of authority to define the objectives which have to be made
  • Define a team with responsability roles
  • Have a previous dialogue in order to ensure the comprension of the objectives
  • Ensuring confidence moods
  • Distributed in time and in the team the commitments to be made
  • Define regular monigoring practices of the promises and solve the mistakes
  • Periodically review the realization of the commitments, celebrating achievements and looking for causes of failure to correct
(Roman 2010)

Everybody have goals that sometimes are hard to reach. In order to try obtaining these objectives, it is necessary to use coaching bso that the steps that were mentioned before will be easier to achieve the desired objectives.

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8/ Conclusion

In a world that continuously wants to get better, coaching is a wide spread tool to reach this improvement mind. Coaching helps an individual or a team, to improve a part of their life, work. After defining the objectives of the coaching, a relationship starts between the coachee and his coach. He gathers information about the coachee, and then the coaching process may start. This process may be implemented on a wide range of aspects, such as business environment, everyday life, sport…

The results of using coaching, as said before, remains on the idea of improving. After a coaching, we are more reactive, autonomous… more human. Coaching is somehow, the key of success. We handle better our stress, have more confidence in ourselves and we resist to oppression. Therefore coaching can allow someone to improve his physical or mental skills; but also to find his own way in life.
Coaching is, after motivating, an important process which tends to be developed in societies. Now the question is when everyone will get used of coaching, what will be the following concept that will make the difference?


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9/ References

9.1 Books

  • Flaherty, J., 1998. Coaching: Evoking Excellence in Others
  • Hirvihuhta, H., 2006. Coaching- valmenna ja sparraa menestykseen. Otavan kirjapaino oy: keuruu

9.2 Websites

  • Individual coaching. Accessed 03.11.2010
  • Executive team coaching. Accessed 03.11.2010
  • Faubert, D. Objectif de coaching – Une typologie des enjeux. Accessed 03.11.2010
  • Lorio, E. 2010. Objectifs du coaching. Accessed 03.11.2110
  • Mproactive magazine. 2007. Personal coaching. Accessed 02.11.2010
  • Peischl, E. 2010. Results coaching. Accessed 02.11.2010
  • Raschetti, B. 2003. Objectifs du Coaching. Accessed 02.11.2010
  • Roman,R. 2010. Coaching, management y resultados. Accessed 02.11.2010
  • Wheeler, P. 2008. Four tips for coaching. Accessed 02.11.2010

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